Modern Django's file handling capabilities go well beyond what's covered in the tutorial. By customizing the handlers that Django uses, you can do things pretty much any way you want.
Django divides the files your web site is serving unchanged as opposed to content delivered by your Django views into two types. Both kinds of files are managed by code in Django storage classes. By configuring Django to use different storage classes, you can change how the files are managed.
The beauty of this system is that our static and media files don't even need to be stored as files. As long as the storage class can do those two things, it'll all work. However, if you remove them from your settings, and try to use runserveryou'll get errors. It turns out that when running with runserverdjango. This is rarely a problem in practice. And if you want to run locally in the exact same way as your deployed site, possibly using other storage classes, then you should be running Django the same way you do when deployed as well, and not using runserver.
In other words, it's bypassing the static files storage class. If you really need to use runserver with some other static file storage class, you can either configure those four settings to something that'll make runserver happy, or use the --nostatic option with runserver to tell it not to try to serve static files, and then it won't look at those settings at startup.
As far as your database is concerned, these are just char columns storing relative paths, but the fields wrap that with code to use the media file storage class.
In a template, you use the url attribute on the file or image field to get a URL for the underlying file. For example, if user. The default storage class for media, django. Maybe the storage class saves the media files as attachments to email messages on an IMAP server - Django doesn't care.
When If there's already something stored under that name, Django will change the name to come up with something unique. Django stores the resulting filename in the database field. And that's all Django cares about. Django doesn't know what that URL will be, and doesn't have to. For more on what happens between the user submitting a form with attached files and Django passing bits to a storage class to be saved, you can read the Django docs about File Uploads.
Media files are loaded into storage when users upload files. Static files are provided by us, the website developers, and so they can be loaded into storage beforehand.
The collectstatic management command finds all your static files, and saves each one, using the path relative to the static directory where it was found, into the static files storage. You would most commonly access static files from templates, by loading the static templatetags library and using the static template tag. For example, you might write:.
Advanced Django File Handling
Maybe then you deploy it, and are using some fancy storage class that knows how to use a CDN, resulting in:. Other neat tricks can be played here. That's the basis for useful packages like django-pipeline.
Static files are often stored in your version control system alongside your code. These can include uploaded pictures, avatars, user files, etc.In this first Django article, we answer the question "What is Django? We'll outline the main features, including some of the advanced functionality that we won't have time to cover in detail in this module.
We'll also show you some of the main building blocks of a Django application although at this point you won't yet have a development environment in which to test it. Built by experienced developers, Django takes care of much of the hassle of web development, so you can focus on writing your app without needing to reinvent the wheel.
Django is now a thriving, collaborative open source project, with many thousands of users and contributors. A better question is whether Django is "popular enough" to avoid the problems of unpopular platforms. Is it continuing to evolve?
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Can you get help if you need it? Is there an opportunity for you to get paid work if you learn Django? Based on the number of high profile sites that use Django, the number of people contributing to the codebase, and the number of people providing both free and paid for support, then yes, Django is a popular framework!
Opinionated frameworks are those with opinions about the "right way" to handle any particular task. Unopinionated frameworks, by contrast, have far fewer restrictions on the best way to glue components together to achieve a goal, or even what components should be used. They make it easier for developers to use the most suitable tools to complete a particular task, albeit at the cost that you need to find those components yourself.
Django is "somewhat opinionated", and hence delivers the "best of both worlds". However, Django's decoupled architecture means that you can usually pick and choose from a number of different options, or add support for completely new ones if desired.
Depending on what is required it may then read or write information from a database or perform other tasks required to satisfy the request. The application will then return a response to the web browser, often dynamically creating an HTML page for the browser to display by inserting the retrieved data into placeholders in an HTML template.
A URL mapper is typically stored in a file named urls. The first argument to both methods is a route pattern that will be matched. We'll talk about these in a later article! The notation views. In between, they marshall the other resources of the framework to access databases, render templates, etc.
The example below shows a minimal view function indexwhich could have been called by our URL mapper in the previous section. We'll show you a request that does something more interesting in a later section.This tutorial teaches you how to build a Python Django web app that uses the Microsoft Graph API to retrieve calendar information for a user.
Before you start this tutorial, you should have Python with pip installed on your development machine. If you do not have Python, visit the previous link for download options. This tutorial was written with Python version 3. The steps in this guide may work with other versions, but that has not been tested. Please provide any feedback on this tutorial in the GitHub repository. In this exercise you will use Django to build a web app.
If you don't already have Django installed, you can install it from your command-line interface CLI with the following command. Open your CLI, navigate to a directory where you have rights to create files, and run the following command to create a new Django app. Navigate to this new directory and enter the following command to start a local web server. If everything is working, you will see a Django welcome page. If you don't see that, check the Django getting started guide.
Now that you've verified the project, add an app to the project. Run the following command in your CLI. This creates a new app in the. Open the. Add a URLconf for the tutorial app. Create a new file in the. Now update the project URLconf to import this one. Finally add a temporary view to the tutorials app to verify that URL routing is working.
Save all of your changes and restart the server. You should see Welcome to the tutorial. Start by creating a templates directory and defining a global layout for the app.
Create a new directory in the. In the templates directory, create a new directory named tutorial. Finally, create a new file in this directory named layout. The relative path from the root of your project should be. Add the following code in that file. This code adds Bootstrap for simple styling, and Font Awesome for some simple icons.
It also defines a global layout with a nav bar. Now create a new directory in the. In the static directory, create a new directory named tutorial. Finally, create a new file in this directory named app.
Next, create a template for the home page that uses the layout. Update the home view to use this template. In this exercise, you will create a new Azure AD web application registration using the Azure Active Directory admin center. Open a browser and navigate to the Azure Active Directory admin center. Select Azure Active Directory in the left-hand navigation, then select App registrations under Manage.
Select New registration.Before a TemplateResponse instance can be returned to the client, it must be rendered.
The rendering process takes the intermediate representation of template and context, and turns it into the final byte stream that can be served to the client. REST framework includes a number of built in Renderer classes, that allow you to return responses with various media types.
There is also support for defining your own custom renderers, which gives you the flexibility to design your own media types. The set of valid renderers for a view is always defined as a list of classes. When a view is entered REST framework will perform content negotiation on the incoming request, and determine the most appropriate renderer to satisfy the request.
The basic process of content negotiation involves examining the request's Accept header, to determine which media types it expects in the response. Optionally, format suffixes on the URL may be used to explicitly request a particular representation. For more information see the documentation on content negotiation. You can also set the renderers used for an individual view, or viewset, using the APIView class-based views. It's important when specifying the renderer classes for your API to think about what priority you want to assign to each media type.
If your API includes views that can serve both regular webpages and API responses depending on the request, then you might consider making TemplateHTMLRenderer your default renderer, in order to play nicely with older browsers that send broken accept headers.
Note that the default style is to include unicode characters, and render the response using a compact style with no unnecessary whitespace:. The client may additionally include an 'indent' media type parameter, in which case the returned JSON will be indented. Unlike other renderers, the data passed to the Response does not need to be serialized.
A simple renderer that simply returns pre-rendered HTML. Unlike other renderers, the data passed to the response object should be a string representing the content to be returned. This renderer will determine which other renderer would have been given highest priority, and use that to display an API style response within the HTML page.
By default the response content will be rendered with the highest priority renderer apart from BrowsableAPIRenderer. For example:.Released: Mar 26, View statistics for this project via Libraries. The primary goal is to provide a unified shell command structure and a common language to describe operations in OpenStack. There are a few variants on getting help.
The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. The user submits a form, the form data is passed to a web service which returns a string.
The string is tarballed tar. I don't know what's the way. If I create a new file for each user, this won't be a good way. I want to use ajax, so what should i do in success of ajac function and in return of view.
You can create a django file instance of ContentFile using a string content instead of actual file and then send it as a response. Learn more. Asked 7 years, 4 months ago. Active 7 years, 4 months ago. Viewed 7k times. I want to know how can I stream data to client using django. The Goal The user submits a form, the form data is passed to a web service which returns a string. POST if form. Is the string you receive back from the web service already a tar.
I don't know how to appreciate you. Active Oldest Votes. Sample code: from django. Rohan Rohan ZipFile temp, 'w', zipfile. StringIO string writes the "file" to the zip archive archive. Enrico Enrico 8, 8 8 gold badges 36 36 silver badges 49 49 bronze badges. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password.
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Tags appium, selenium, selenium 3, python client, mobile automation. An extension library for adding Selenium 3. You can see the history from here. Install from source, via PyPi. Install from source via GitHub. The Appium Python Client is fully compliant with the Selenium 3. The majority of the usage remains as it has been for Selenium 2 WebDriverand as the official Selenium Python bindings begins to implement the new specification that implementation will be used underneath, so test code can be written that is utilizable with both bindings.
To use the new functionality now, and to use the superset of functions, instead of including the Selenium webdriver module in your test code, use that from Appium instead.
As a base for the following code examples, the following sets up the UnitTest environment:. For mobile testing the Selenium methods for switching between windows was previously commandeered for switching between native applications and webview contexts.
Methods explicitly for this have been added to the Selenium 3 specification, so moving forward these 'context' methods are to be used. To get the current context, rather than calling driver. Finally, to switch to a new context, rather than driver. This allows elements in iOS applications to be found using recursive element search using the UIAutomation library.
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Adds the methods driver. This allows elements in an Android application to be found using recursive element search using the UIAutomator library.
This method allows finding elements using View tags. This method works with Espresso Driver. This method allows finding elements using iOS predicates.
The methods take a string in the format of a predicate, including element type and the value of fields. This method allows finding elements using iOS class chain. The methods take a string in the format of a class chain, including element type. Allows for elements to be found using the "Accessibility ID". The methods take a string representing the accessibility id or label attached to a given element, e.
In order to accommodate mobile touch actions, and touch actions involving multiple pointers, the Selenium 3. The API is built around TouchAction objects, which are chains of one or more actions to be performed in a sequence. The actions are:. The perform method sends the chain to the server in order to be enacted.
It also empties the action chain, so the object can be reused. It will be at the end of all single action chains, but is unused when writing multi-action chains. The tap method stands alone, being unable to be chained with other methods.